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Hypothyroidism – Symptoms, Causes, & Complications

Hypothyroidism – Symptoms, Causes, & Complications
October 22, 2018 Pragna Mohapatra
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What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is also known as underactive thyroid or low thyroid. This is a disorder of the endocrine system as in this condition the thyroid gland is unable to produce sufficient thyroid hormone.

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped, small gland found at the front of our neck. It releases thyroid hormone that is responsible for multiple functions related to brain, heart, skin, calcium absorption, digestion and metabolism. When the thyroid gland fails to release the required number of thyroid hormone, the natural functions of our body are affected. Hypothyroidism usually affects the women and elderly, with age greater than 60 years. However, it has become more prevalent as stress and pollutants have become a common phenomenon and thyroid gland is highly sensitive to such triggers.

What are the signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism?

The symptoms of hypothyroidism differ from person to person. The signs and symptoms depend on the severity of the disease and sometimes it is difficult to diagnose. Here are the common symptoms:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Feeling cold
  3. Depression
  4. Weight gain with poor appetite
  5. Constipation
  6. Decreased sweating
  7. Dry skin
  8. Muscle weakness and aches
  9. Decrease in heartbeat
  10. Increase in blood cholesterol
  11. Reduced memory and difficulty in concentrating
  12. Pain and stiffness in joints
  13. Hair loss
  14. Change in menstrual cycles or fertility-related difficulties
  15. Hoarseness
  16. Swelled and sensitive face

Initially due to hypothyroidism, weight gain and fatigue occur. These conditions are more common in aged people irrespective of their thyroid health. You may be unaware that these symptoms are the result of hypothyroidism till you get more problems.

Being untreated, the symptoms in many people increase slowly over many years. When the decrease in the thyroid hormone is more, the symptoms will increase and the problem may be easily diagnosed. Though some symptoms are common in old ages, still you need to consult a doctor. The doctor will recommend you to do a blood test to confirm if you have the disorder.

thyroid-gland-hypothyroidism-medhya

 

What are the major Causes?

There are a number of causes of hypothyroidism. They may be an autoimmune disease, treatment for hyperthyroidism, radiation therapy, thyroid surgery and certain medications.

Autoimmune disease

One type of inflammatory disorder occurs in the human body known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and it gives rise to hypothyroidism. This disease attacks the thyroid gland causing chronic thyroid inflammation. This problem decreases thyroid function. Most of the time, many family members get affected by this disease.

Our immune system saves us from some harmful bacteria and viruses. Autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system produces antibodies and these attack different body’s tissues including the thyroid gland. Sometimes, our body is confusing normal, healthy cells as invading cells. This is known as autoimmune response and if it is left untreated, the immune system may attack healthy tissues. This can cause hypothyroidism.

Treatment for hyperthyroidism

People whose body release too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) usually get treated with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications to cut and normalize their thyroid production. But, the treatment of hyperthyroidism can cause permanent hypothyroidism.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is given to treat cancers of the head and neck, lymphoma, and leukaemia. So it can affect your thyroid gland and may cause hypothyroidism.

Thyroid surgery

In some cases, there is a necessity of removing the thyroid gland or a large part of it. This may reduce full or half hormone production. Therefore, you have to take the thyroid hormone and medication for entire life.

Medications

A lot of medications can lead to hypothyroidism. For example, lithium, which is given for certain psychiatric disorders.

Complications of Hypothyroidism

If left untreated, an underactive thyroid can lead to multiple health complications for body and brain. Here is a list of few:

thyroid-goiter-hypothyroidism

Image Credit: Thyroid Centre of Santa Monica

Goiter

Constant stimulation of your thyroid to release of hormones may make the gland too larger, and it is known as a goiter. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is one of the reasons behind goiter. The larger goiter does not feel uncomfortable, but it affects one’s appearance and may cause problems with swallowing and breathing.

Mental health issues

In early stages of hypothyroidism, depression occurs and it increases with over time. Sometimes, it leads to reduced mental functioning.

Heart problems

Hypothyroidism may also increase the risk of heart disease, primarily because of high levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein)cholesterol or the “bad” cholesterol. A mild or early form of hypothyroidism which does not show any symptoms, can increase the total cholesterol levels and decrease the pumping ability of the heart. It can also cause an enlarged heart and heart failure.

Peripheral neuropathy

Long-term untreated hypothyroidism causes harm to peripheral nerves that transmit information from the brain and spinal cord to the different parts of the body. The problems of peripheral neuropathy are pain, numbness and tingling in the particular area where the nerves get damaged. For example, muscle weakness or decrease in muscle control.

Infertility & Birth defects

Hypothyroidism can cause infertility. Babies born to Women with untreated thyroid disease may give birth to babies with defects than healthy mothers. These children may have significant intellectual and developmental problems. Babies having untreated hypothyroidism during birth are more susceptible to serious problems with both physical and mental development.

Myxedema

It is an uncommon life-threatening disease and it is caused due to long-term, untreated hypothyroidism. Its signs and symptoms are poor ability to tolerate cold, drowsiness followed lethargy and unconsciousness. Myxedema may be triggered by infections, sedatives, and stress on the body.


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